Число потенцильно обитаемых планет в Млечном Пути оценили в 300 миллионов

ТАСС, 30 октября. В Млечном Пути может скрываться около 300 млн планет, которые по своим свойствам и размерам похожи на Землю, считают американские планетологи. Это значительно расширяет количество потенциально обитаемых планет. Статью с результатами расчетов ученых принял к публикации The Astronomical Journal.

На эту тему20 самых интересных экзопланет

"Мы впервые получили все необходимые данные, чтобы с достаточно высоким уровнем точности подсчитать, сколько в нашей Галактике может быть потенциально обитаемых аналогов Земли. Этот параметр – ключевая часть уравнения Дрейка, котороые оцениваеи потенциальное число внеземных цивилизаций. Теперь мы стали на шаг ближе к ответу на вопрос, одни ли мы в космосе", – рассказал один из авторов работы, планетолог из Института поиска внеземных цивилизаций SETI (США) Джефф Кофлин.

Полвека назад американский астроном Фрэнк Дрейк придумал формулу для подсчета того, сколько в нашей Галактике внеземных цивилизаций, с которыми возможен контакт. Также с помощью этой формулы можно оценить шансы на встречу с такими цивилизациями. Расчеты Дрейка показали, что таких планет должно быть очень много и что человечество обязательно должно встретиться с их обитателями.

Однако в ближайшие годы после публикации уравнения ни одного контакта с инопланетянами не произошло. Ученые того времени, в том числе Энрико Ферми, начали сомневаться в истинности допущений Дрейка. В результате итальянец сформулировал так называемый "парадокс Ферми": если разумные инопланетяне существуют, почему человечество до их пор не открыло никаких их следов?

Ученые до сих пор не могут разрешить этот парадокс. Раньше они предполагали, что человечество еще не встретилось с внеземными цивилизациями из-за того, что на нашей планете сложились уникальные условия, которые нужны для формирования разумной жизни. Сейчас эта гипотеза кажется маловероятной, ведь астрономы открыли тысячи землеподобных планет у ближайших к нам звезд.

Миллионы новых Земель

На эту темуКоличество обитаемых планет в Млечном Пути может превышать десятки тысяч

В новой работе Кофлин и его коллеги сделали большой шаг к решению этой проблемы. Они сделали первые точные оценки того, как много в Млечном Пути может быть планет, которые похожи на Землю по размерам, массе и другим условиям. Этот параметр, N(e) – одна из ключевых переменных, которые используются в уравнении Дрейка. Ранее астрономы не могли оценить с ее помощью количество потенциально обитаемых планет в нашей Галактике даже приблизительно.

Специалисты из Института поиска внеземных цивилизаций SETI и их коллеги из NASA придумали, как получить относительно точное значение N(e), опираясь на данные орбитальных обсерваторий Kepler и Gaia.

Благодаря снимкам этих телескопов Кофлин и его коллеги оценили, как часто внутри зоны обитаемости оказываются землеподобные планеты диаметром примерно на 50% меньше или больше Земли. Расчеты показали, что при самом неблагоприятном стечении обстоятельств это происходит примерно в 37% случаев, тогда как в других случаях эта оценка составляет от 58% до 88%.

Исследователи объясняют, что подобные значения N(e) указывают на то, что в пределах Млечного Пути может существовать около 300 млн аналогов Земли, на которых может существовать жизнь. Если это действительно так, то в ближайших окрестностях Солнца, кроме уже открытой Проксимы Центавра b, землеподобного мира у ближайшей к нам звезды, должно быть сразу четыре звездных системы с подобными планетами.

Кофлин и его коллеги надеются, что благодаря данным телескопа TESS подобные расчеты станут еще точнее. Благодаря этому астрономы смогут оценить вероятность того, сможет ли человечество в ближайшее время открыть внеземную жизнь и внеземные цивилизации.

Источник: tass.ru

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